Monday, August 17, 2015

Steve Jobs knew what the Internet was really for way back starting in 1995...

Way back in 1995 and 1996 —  just a little after eBay, years before PayPal, and well before today's announcement of a "buy" button on Pinterest  — late Apple co-founder and CEO Steve Jobs knew that the true kings of the Internet would be those who knew how to sell a product.

In an interview for Wired's February 1996 issue, entitled "Steve Jobs: The Next Great Thing," the Apple co-founder talked about his vision for where this still-new "Web" thing was going.

"The heart of the Web, he said, will be commerce, and the heart of commerce will be corporate America serving custom products to individual consumers," Wired wrote. 

That sounds a lot like what Amazon does with its recommendation engine, and to how Google and Facebook ads let advertisers aim at ever-smaller groups of people.

At this point, Jobs' computer company NeXT had dropped its floundering hardware business in favor of focusing on providing tools for developers to write software for the World Wide Web. He wouldn't make his legendary return to Apple until later that year, after the company acquired NeXT. 

Here's the relevant part of the interview: 

Wired: What other opportunities are out there?

Steve Jobs: Who do you think will be the main beneficiary of the Web? Who wins the most?

W: People who have something -

SJ: To sell!

W: To share.

SJ: To sell!

W: You mean publishing?

SJ: It's more than publishing. It's commerce. People are going to stop going to a lot of stores. And they're going to buy stuff over the Web!

W: What about the Web as the great democratizer?

SJ: If you look at things I've done in my life, they have an element of democratizing. The Web is an incredible democratizer. A small company can look as large as a big company and be as accessible as a big company on the Web.

Big companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars building their distribution channels. And the Web is going to completely neutralize that advantage.

W: What will the economic landscape look like after that democratic process has gone through another cycle?

SJ: The Web is not going to change the world, certainly not in the next 10 years. It's going to augment the world. And once you're in this Web-augmented space, you're going to see that democratization takes place.

The Web's not going to capture everybody. If the Web got up to 10 percent of the goods and services in this country, it would be phenomenal. I think it'll go much higher than that. Eventually, it will become a huge part of the economy.

There's a lot to unpack here. Note Jobs' equivalence of online publishing with selling. That's extremely prescient, in light of the way that social networks like Pinterest and Twitter are aggressively building in options to buy stuff straight from what's ostensibly a publishing platform.

Jobs didn't predict social networking — and Apple's so-far only attempt at a social network, Ping, was a flop — but he saw that selling was going to become one of the only ways for a web company to make money.

Finally, note that Jobs believes that the Web is going to going to "augment the world," which actually fits in nicely with what would become Apple's design philosophy when he returned to the company later in 1996. 

Steve Jobs, during his tenure at computer company NeXT.

Rather than being just another appliance, Jobs' leadership saw Apple's products (and marketing) embrace the idea that computers could enhance a customer's lifestyle.

Either way, Jobs was right. Even though brick-and-mortar stores still dominate the industry, we're buying more stuff online than ever before. And technologies like Apple Pay are making sure that trend doesn't stop. 

Last week's requests for cooperation...

Wednesday, July 29, 2015


THE TAKEAWAY: Product fundraising – buying bars of chocolate, mugs, lamingtons, tea-towels, socks etc. from a wholesaler and selling them on to your supporters – is a fundraising staple. But there are a few traps for beginners that you need to be aware of. 

As long as you have a willing group of sellers and a product that people want to buy, product fundraising can be a seriously good money spinner.

But before you get started remember these two very important points:

Gross profits are not the same thing as net profits

When estimating your profits you’ll need to factor in the money you’ll have to spend to get there.

You will have to pay the company for the product, and cover the costs of promotion and distribution. (Thankfully, most not-for-profits don’t have to pay their volunteer sales force.)

You have to sell what people want to buy

Type 'fundraising' into Google and you'll find hundreds of firms that will be very happy indeed for your organisation to sell their wares on commission.

Not all of them will be relevant, acceptable or desirable to your target audience – they’re things you have to consider even before you think about the levels of commission or profit.

OUR TIP: It is very important to remember that the companies providing you with stock are not doing you a favour. You're doing them a favour. You're an independent contractor with a sales workforce you're offering to them for a fee. Whatever money you do raise for your school, pre-school or group, you're making more for the product manufacturer. 

Pick the right product

When preparing to launch a product-based fundraising campaign it’s important to remember that there are many more options than the handful of groups who specifically package and sell goods for not-for-profit groups to re-sell. 

Almost any business will be happy to have your people sell its goods for a commission, particularly when you tell them it’s for a good cause. 

Round up a few members and have a focus group and see what's going to sell best. Do this before you start thinking of what you can get cheap.

Pick the exact product you need, and give the sales manager a ring. Ask what the wholesale price is and how many items you need to buy to get it. Ask if they'll lower that number for a good cause. If they won't, make few more calls.

Get it as cheap as possible

Once you've settled on a product, try to maximise the take:

Can you get it given to you free? That's best.
Can you make it yourself? That's next best.
Can you get it under wholesale?

Get it in big lumps

Your profit margin is not as important as the profit per item. It's easier to sell one $5 item than it is to sell five $1 items.

You can get more if you're selling a popular item, or if there's a strong commitment to your organisation, or if your sales force is above average. Try for all three.


If you can put the purchaser's name on an object, that will lift the profit margin substantially.

If you can put your organisation's name on an item, that makes it slightly more valuable and it also reminds customers that the real point is the giving, not the consuming.

At the very least, sell your items in a paper bag with your logo. 

Add value

When your salespeople are going on their rounds, have them take a collection tin so they can practice the line, "And would you like to kick in a bit extra for a good cause?" 

This is especially useful for people who don’t buy your products but would still like to contribute. Every little bit helps.

If you’re not keen on asking people to put in a bit extra verbally, add a box on the order form to encourage extra donations. 


Buyer overload can be a problem, so coordinate your efforts with other organisations in the neighbourhood.

Seller overload is just as important to watch out for – don’t hit up kindergarten parents to sign on for a lamington drive when they’ve just completed the school’s sock drive; don’t ask them to do it all again a few months later.

OUR TIP: If you find out that another school, club or group is holding a sock drive in April, choose another type of fundraiser or another month.

Watch Out!

While profit is a key factor, there are other issues that organisations should consider in choosing products to sell.


Just because a product is a good seller doesn’t mean it’s something your organisation should sell. Certain products might be incompatible with the organisation’s values – for example, junk food appears to be moving into that band for many groups, particularly schools.


You need to be sure the product vendor you choose is one you can trust. Ask for references from similar organisations that have used the vendor and/or the product you’re looking to sell.

Avoid up-front payments

Be extra careful of fundraising programs that require large upfront cash deposits if you aren't sure of the outcome of the fundraiser. The last thing you want is to be lumbered with piles of unsold stock or – worse – to make a loss.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Designing For The Elderly: Ways Older People Use Digital Technology Differently

If you work in the tech industry, it’s easy to forget that older people exist. Most tech workers are really young, so it’s easy to see why most technology is designed for young people. 

But consider this: By 2030, around 19% of people in the US will be over 65 (on about 70 Million people). Check the  U.S. and World Population Clock here;

Doesn’t sound like a lot? Well it happens to be about the same number of people in the US who own an iPhone today. Which of these two groups do you think Silicon Valley spends more time thinking about?

This seems unfortunate when you consider all of the things technology has to offer older people. A great example is Speaking Exchange, an initiative that connects retirees in the US with kids who are learning English in Brazil. 

While the ageing process is different for everyone, we all go through some fundamental changes. Not all of them are what you’d expect. For example, despite declining health, older people tend to be significantly happier and better atappreciating what they have.

But ageing makes some things harder as well, and one of those things is using technology. If you’re designing technology for older people, below are seven key things you need to know.

(How old is old? It depends. While I’ve deliberately avoided trying to define such an amorphous group using chronological boundaries, it’s safe to assume that each of the following issues becomes increasingly significant after 65 years of age.)

Vision And Hearing

From the age of about 40, the lens of the eye begins to harden, causing a condition called “presbyopia.” This is a normal part of ageing that makes it increasingly difficult to read text that is small and close.

Color vision also declines with age, and we become worse at distinguishing between similar colors. In particular, shades of blue appear to be faded or desaturated.

Hearing also declines in predictable ways, and a large proportion of people over 65 have some form of hearing loss. While audio is seldom fundamental to interaction with a product, there are obvious implications for certain types of content.

Key lessons:

Avoid font sizes smaller than 16 pixels (depending of course on device, viewing distance, line height etc.).
Let people adjust text size themselves.
Pay particular attention to contrast ratios with text.
Avoid blue for important interface elements.
Always test your product using screen readers.
Provide subtitles when video or audio content is fundamental to the user experience.

Motor Control

Our motor skills decline with age, which makes it harder to use computers in various ways. For example, during some user testing at a retirement village, we saw an 80-year-old who always uses the mouse with two hands. Like many older people, she had a lot of trouble hitting interface targets and moving from one thing to the next.

In the general population, a mouse is more accurate than a finger. But in our user testing, we’ve seen older people perform better using touch interfaces. This is consistent with research that shows that finger tapping declines later than some other motor skills.

Key lessons:

Reduce the distance between interface elements that are likely to be used in sequence (such as form fields), but make sure they’re at least 2 millimeters apart.
Buttons on touch interfaces should be at least 9.6 millimeters diagonally (for example, 44 × 44 pixels on an iPad) for ages up to 70, and larger for older people.
Interface elements to be clicked with a mouse (such as forms and buttons) should be at least 11 millimeters diagonally.
Pay attention to sizing in human interface guidelines (Luke Wroblewski has a good roundup of guidelines for different platforms).

Device Use

If you want to predict the future, just look at what middle-class American teens are doing. Right now, they’re using their mobile phones for everything.

– Dustin Curtis

It’s safe to assume Dustin has never watched a 75-year-old use a mobile phone. Eventually, changes in vision and motor control make small screens impractical for everyone. Smartphones are a young person’s tool, and not even the coolest teenager can escape their biological destiny.

In our research, older people consistently described phones as “annoying” and “fiddly.” Those who own them seldom use them, often not touching them for days at a time. They often ignore SMS’ entirely.

But older people aren’t afraid to try new technology when they see a clear benefit. For example, older people are the largest users of tablets. This makes sense when you consider the defining difference between a tablet and a phone: screen size. The recent slump in tablet sales also makes sense if you accept that older people have longer upgrade cycles than younger people.

Key lessons:

Avoid small-screen devices (i.e. phones).
Don’t rely on SMS to convey important information.


Older people have different relationships than young people, at least partly because they’ve had more time to cultivate them. For example, we conducted some research into how older people interact with health care professionals. In many cases, they’ve seen the same doctors for decades, leading to a very high degree of trust.

I regard it like going to see old pals.… I feel I could tell my GP almost anything.

– George, 73, on visiting his medical team

But due to health and mobility issues, the world available to the elderly is often smaller — both physically and socially. Digital technology has an obvious role to play here, by connecting people virtually when being in the same room is hard.

Key lessons:

Enable connection with a smaller, more important group of people (not a big, undifferentiated social network).
Don’t overemphasize security and privacy controls when trusted people are involved.
Be sensitive to issues of isolation.

Life Stage

During a user testing session, I sat with a 66-year-old as she signed up for an Apple ID. She was asked to complete a series of security questions. She read the first question out loud. “What was the model of your first car?” She laughed. “I have no idea! What car did I have in 1968? What a stupid question!”

It’s natural for a 30-year-old programmer to assume that this question has meaning for everyone, but it contains an implicit assumption about which life stage the user is at. Don’t make the same mistake in your design.

Key lessons:

Beware of content or functionality that implicitly assumes someone is young or at a certain stage in life.

Experience With Technology

I once sat with a man in his 80s as he used a library interface. “I know there are things down there that I want to read” he said, gesturing to the bottom of the screen, “but I can’t figure out how to get to them.” After I taught him how to use a scrollbar, his experience changed completely. In another session, two of the older participants told me that they’d never used a search field before.

Generally when you’re designing interfaces, you’re working within a certain kind of scaffolding. And it’s easy to assume that everyone knows how that scaffolding works. But people who didn’t grow up with computers might have never used the interface elements we take for granted. Is a scrollbar a good design for moving content up and down? Is its function self-evident? These aren’t questions most designers often ask. But the success of your design might depend on a thousand parts of the interface that you can’t control and probably aren’t even aware of.

Key lessons:

Don’t make assumptions about prior knowledge.
Interrogate all parts of your design for usability, even the parts you didn’t create.


The science of cognition is a huge topic, and ageing changes how we think in unpredictable ways. Some people are razor-sharp in their 80s, while others decline as early as in their 60s.

Despite this variability, three areas are particularly relevant to designing for the elderly: memory, attention and decision-making. (For a more comprehensive view of cognitive change with age, chapter 1 of Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms is a great place to start.)


There are different kinds of memory, and they’re affected differently by the ageing process. For example, procedural memory (that is, remembering how to do things) is generally unaffected. People of all ages are able to learn new skills and reproduce them over time.

But other types of memory suffer as we age. Short-term memory and episodicmemory are particularly vulnerable. And, although the causes are unclear, older people often have difficulty manipulating the contents of their working memory. This means that they may have trouble understanding how to combine complex new concepts in a product or interface.

Prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) also suffers. This is particularly relevant for habitual tasks, like remembering to take medication at the right time every day.

How do people manage this decline? In our research, we’ve found that paper is king. Older people almost exclusively use calendars and diaries to supplement their memory. But well-designed technology has great potential to provide cues for these important actions.

For older people, paper is king. 

Key lessons:

Introduce product features gradually over time to prevent cognitive overload.
Avoid splitting tasks across multiple screens if they require memory of previous actions.
During longer tasks, give clear feedback on progress and reminders of goals.
Provide reminders and alerts as cues for habitual actions.


It’s easy to view ageing as a decline, but it’s not all bad news. In our research, we’ve observed one big advantage: Elderly people consistently excel in attention span, persistence and thoroughness. Jakob Nielsen has observed similar things, finding that 95% of seniors are “methodical” in their behaviors. This is significant in a world where the average person’s attention span has actually dropped below the level of a goldfish.

It can be a great feeling to watch an older user really take the time to explore your design during a testing session. And it means that older people often find things that younger people skip right over. I often find myself admiring this way of interacting with the world. But the obvious downside of a slower pace is increased time to complete tasks.

Older people are also less adept at dividing their attention between multiple tasks. In a world obsessed with multitasking, this can seem like a handicap. But because multi-tasking is probably a bad idea in the first place, designing products that help people to focus on one thing at a time can have benefits for all age groups.

Key lessons:

Don’t be afraid of long-form text and deep content.
Allow for greater time intervals in interactions (for example, server timeouts, inactivity warnings).
Avoid dividing users’ attention between multiple tasks or parts of the screen.


Young people tend to weigh a lot of options before settling on one. Older people make decisions a bit differently. They tend to emphasize prior knowledge (perhaps because they’ve had more time to accumulate it). And they give more weight to the opinions of experts (for example, their doctor for medical decisions).

The exact reason for this is unclear, but it may be due to other cognitive limitations that make comparing new options more difficult.

Key lessons:

Prioritize shortcuts to previous choices ahead of new alternatives.
Information framed as expert opinion may be more persuasive (but don’t abuse this bias).


A lot of people in the tech industry talk about “changing the world” and “making people’s lives better.” But bad design is excluding whole sections of the population from the benefits of technology. If you’re a designer, you can help change that. By following some simple principles, you can create more inclusive products that work better for everyone, especially the people who need them the most.

By Ollie Campbell

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